Biotechnology Homework Help: Embryo Transfer Technology
The embryo transfer technology offers several advantages which are manifest in its varied applications; these are briefly enumerated below.
1. A single female can be induced to ovalute, on an average, 6 times a year, and in which ovulation cycle about 6 healthy transplantable embryos are obtained. According to homework helper assuming an average success rate of 50% in the embryo transfer, an average of 18 progeny can be derived from one superior female in one year.
2. Each young embryo can be split into 2-4 parts, each of which would develop into a separate progeny; this is called embryo splitting. By combining embryo splitting with superovulation and embryo transfer techniques, the rate of multiplication can be further increased.
3. The young embryos can be frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for upto 10 years or more and used at a subsequent date.
Freezing and storage of young embryos in liquid nitrogen (at -196˚C) is known as cryopreservation. According to answers to homework they are them cooled at a slow rate to -38˚C, ordinarily employing a programmable controlled rate freezer. These embryos are then plunged into liquid nitrogen and stored at -196˚C. The embryos are thawed at a very rapid rate by immersing the ampoule carrying them into a water bath maintained at 0˚C.
4. Superior cours that are unfit to carry the foetus for full term, can serve as donors of the young embryos.
Properties of a good host
A good host should have the following features: (1) is easy to transform, (2) supports the replication of recombinant DNA, (3) is free from elements that interfere with replication of recombinant DNA, (4) lacks active restriction enzymes, e.g. E. coli K12 substrain HB 101, (5) does not have methylases since these enzymes would methylate the replicated recombinant DNA which, as a result, would become resistant to useful restriction enzymes, and (6) is deficient in normal recombination function so that DNA insert is not altered by recombination events.
A plasmid is a DNA molecule, other than the bacterial chromosome, that is capable of independent replication and transmission. Plasmids are circular and may exist either independent of or may become integrated into the bacterial chromosome; generally they are not essential for the host cell except under specific environments. There are several types of bacterial plasmids, but the three widely studied types are: F plasmids (responsible for conjugation), R plasmids (carry genes for resistance to antibiotics) and Col plasmids (code for colicins, the proteins that kill sensitive E. coli cells; they also carry genes that provide immunity to the particular colicin). According to history homework help experts the plasmids may either be conjugative or transmissible (mediate DNA transfer through conjugation, and as a result spread and some of Col plasmids, or non conjugative (do not mediate DNA transfer through conjugation) e.g. many R plasmids and most Col plasmids.
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